This fat soluble vitamin occurs in various forms, currently at least 17, known as Vitamin K Dependent Proteins (VKDP’s) with different biological functions and amongst other things different forms are critically important for blood clotting, bone metabolism, healthy blood vessels and normal vascular functioning. Forms include:
Phylloquinone – K1 found in plants, Menaquinone – K2 produced by intestinal bacteria, Menadione – K3 is a synthetic form used as a feed supplement and converted to the active Menaquinone-4 by the liver, and Quinaquanone, a patented water soluble synthetic form of K1 & K2.
As yet, dietary requirements for Vitamin K have not been determined and it is assumed that provision by forage feeds combined with synthesis by the intestinal microbiota meets all normal requirements. Whilst supplementation with Quinaquanone is widely used in the hope of improved bone health and strength and reduced incidence of Developmental Orthopaedic Disease there remain questions as to the significance and role of the various VKDP’s in bone health and D.O.D. and recommendations for use may be premature.